The Early Access Program is a 7 day period in advance of General Availability (GA) during which domains can be registered immediately with five different price tiers, starting with the highest tier and decreasing each day. The "real" General Availability period with no more additional one-time fee starts October the 9th (16:00 UTC). Learn more here.
I am a new gTLD Consultant based in Paris. "New gTLD" stands for "new generic Top-Level Domains" from the ICANN new gTLD program. They are new domain name extensions such as ".consulting" (instead of ".com").